Turkey Health Literacy Journal http://saglikokuryazarligidergisi.com/index.php/soyd <p><strong>Turkey Health Literacy Journal</strong> aims to bring together the parties working on the fields of health protection/development and healthy life on a joint platform. Health literacy means individuals achieving the necessary knowledge, skill and self-confidence level for changing their lifestyle and conditions towards improving self health and social health. It is also closely linked to understanding challenging health conditions and issues. Due to the healthcare services perceived sometimes as complex and confusing, many people have a hard time getting information about health and healthcare options.</p> <p><strong>Turkey Health Literacy Journal</strong> is an academic journal including the scientific studies, researches and analyses conducted towards the purpose of protecting and developing the health of individuals and improving the quality of life.</p> <p><strong>Turkey Health Literacy Journal</strong> is a scientific periodical publication that handles the topics of "Health Literacy" with an interdisciplinary approach in Turkey. Scientific projections of future point out to the need for strengthening the cooperation platforms on the field of health literacy. It is a platform appropriate for knowledge exchange at international level in the field of health literacy.</p> Alban Tanıtım en-US Turkey Health Literacy Journal 2717-7831 An Educational Intervention to Increase Health Literacy Levels of Faculty of Health Sciences Students http://saglikokuryazarligidergisi.com/index.php/soyd/article/view/44 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> In this study, it is aimed to increase the level of health literacy of the students who are studying at the Faculty of Health Sciences and who will take place in different stages of health service provision in the future with educational intervention.<br /><strong>Method:</strong> This study is an intervention study. Students of Ankara Gazi University Faculty of Health Sciences were given a 12-week face-to-face training within the sope of 2019-2020 Fall Period Health Literacy course. Pre and post-training health literacy levels were measured with Turkey Health Literacy Scale-32. The data were analyzed with the SPSS 23 program. Pre-test and post-test scores were compared using the Wilcoxon test. The statistical significance level was accepted as p&lt;0,05.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 48 people, 35 women (72.9%) and 13 men (27.1) were included in this study. The mean age is 22.2±2.7 and the median age is 22 ( min:19- max: 36). In the pre-test, 62.5% of the participants have inadequate /problematic health literacy level. In the post-test 41.7% of the participants have excellent level and 33.3% of the participants have sufficient level. Only 25% of the participants have insufficient problematic level.<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> A range of skills and competencies such as accessing information, understanding, applying and critical thinking are required to protect and improve helath and to use health services correctly and effectively. The biggest factor that will ensure this is to improve health literacy levels. Good levels of the health literacy contribute to improving healt outcomes. At this point, it is of great importance to improve the health literacy levels of the society. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to improve the health literacy levels of all<br />healthcare professionals who work in every step of the health service delivery to the community.</p> Sümeyye Budak Seçil Özkan Copyright (c) 2021 Turkey Health Literacy Journal 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 2 2 4 9 Coronary Artery Disease and Health Literacy Via Public Health View http://saglikokuryazarligidergisi.com/index.php/soyd/article/view/45 <p>Coronary artery disease remains the leading major cause of death globally over the past 15 years. The disease is a pathological process characterized by atherosclerotic plaque deposition in the epicardial arteries. This process can be changed by lifestyle changes, early diagnosis and pharmacological treatments at preventive health care level. Health literacy acts as a mediator in the prevention and management of coronary artery disease. Individuals diagnosed with the disease should stay away from risk factors of the disease and comply with treatment regimens. Health literacy in these individuals includes the ability to understand drug directions, discharge and appointment forms, and education almaterials, as well as the ability to consider complex health systems. One in ten coronary artery patients suffers from limited health literacy. In order to change behavioral risk factors in coronary artery disease, which is an important public health problem of ourage, it will be beneficial to screen risky groups at first and to improve community based coronary artery health literacy. Increasing studies to reveal the relationship between coronary artery disease and health literacy may open a new window to preventive health services. This study emphasizes the importance of coronary artery disease in preventive healthcare services and its relationship with health literacy.</p> Gülay Yılmazel Asuman Ahçıoğlu Copyright (c) 2021 Turkey Health Literacy Journal 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 2 2 10 17 Review on HPV Vaccines in the Fight Against HPV-Related Cancers http://saglikokuryazarligidergisi.com/index.php/soyd/article/view/42 <p>cases every year, and it is 4.5% of all cancers.By 2017 data HPV prevalence in Turkey is 67.6%. High-risk HPV types cause the development of the cervix, vulva, oropharynx, esophagus, penis, anal cancers. Fortunately, we have methods of preventing cancer formation. The most effective method is vaccination. There are three prophylactic HPV vaccines: 4vHPV (quadrivalent), 2vHPV (bivalent), 9vHPV (nonavailable).The purpose of this review is to investigate HPV cancers and their vaccination. As a result, all three vaccines are similar in terms of dose, efficacy and safety. All are ideally recommended for routine vaccination at 11 or 12 years of age, but the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines are approved for men and women aged 9 26 years, and the nonavailable vaccine for 9-45 years. Their efficacy was found to be more than 98% for bivalent, 100% for quadrivalent, and 99% for nonavalent. The most important difference between vaccines are HPV types. Bivalent vaccine is effective against Type 16,18, quadrivalent vaccine Type 6,11,16,18, Nonavalan vaccine Type 6,11,16,18,31,33,45,52,58. According to WHO, since 2019 HPV vaccination was included in national vaccination program in 100 countries. We hope that Turkey will be among one of these countries soon.</p> Botagoz Agabekova Nur Banu Özler Rona Luboteni Copyright (c) 2021 Turkey Health Literacy Journal 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 2 2 18 27 Depressıon and Communıty Mental Health http://saglikokuryazarligidergisi.com/index.php/soyd/article/view/37 <p>Depression is a health problem that affects adversely human life both mentally and physically, causing deterioration of interpersonal harmony, professional and economic losses, decreased quality of life, and even suicide. It is common in the world and our country. Many different factors from biological reasons to psychosocial factors play a role in its etiology. When properly diagnosed and treated, its negative effects on the person and society can be prevented. In this review, the definition, etiology, epidemiology of depression, perspective on depression in terms of community mental health, and community mental health services are mentioned.</p> Tunahan ANBER Tuba Akar Furkan Altun Copyright (c) 2021 Turkey Health Literacy Journal 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 2 2 28 32 Influenza Effects in the Community http://saglikokuryazarligidergisi.com/index.php/soyd/article/view/34 <p>Influenza is a disease of varying severity, characterized by respiratory tract involvement, involving the chest, bronchi and rarely the lung, caused by the RNA virus from the Orthomyxoviridae family. In influenza, whose symptoms are similar to seasonal flu, sudden onset of high fever, headache, sore throat, runny nose, widespread muscle aches in the body, fatigue, weakness, tremors and non-productive cough are predominant. Diarrhea and vomiting may also accompany the symptoms. The virus creates viruses in different genomes and causing new infections to occur, undergoing frequent changes thanks to the segments of its RNA encoding different proteins thus leading to various epidemics and pandemics. For influenza virus, which has two surface glycoproteins, Hemagglutinin (H) and Neuraminidase (NA), which determine the antigenicity and pathogenicity of the virus, these glycoproteins are important in determining the virus types. Influenza viruses have A, B and C main types according to nucleocapsid and matrix proteins. Thanks to its segmented genome structure, it has many subtypes with recombination and modification of sub-antigens.</p> <p>Although influenza causes disease in all age groups, certain groups are affected more. The elderly, those with chronic diseases, those with immunodeficiency, etc. is a group developing complications and mortality risk is high.Morbidity and mortality rates are high in this group. Complications develop with the addition of bacterial infections secondary to influenza.</p> Sophiko Davitadze Ateş Ateş Semagül Çapkın Copyright (c) 2021 Turkey Health Literacy Journal 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 2 2 33 39 Decreasing Risk of Cardiovascular Disease that Accelalerating with Smoking http://saglikokuryazarligidergisi.com/index.php/soyd/article/view/31 <p>Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of death worldwide. Cardiovascular diseases are held responsible %31 of deaths in the world. Similar picture is seen in also Turkey with world. In Turkey, %37 of death are caused by cardiovascular diseases. Most important ones of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases can be counted as unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, smoking and alcohol consumption. Most important characteristic of these factors is that they are modifiable, in other words by making provision against these risk factors, the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases can be reduced and death related to this can be prevented. Smoking which is one of these risk factors, 2-4 times increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, smoking also increases risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease out of cardiovascular diseases and it also increases risks of especially lung cancer, then bladder, colon, stomach cancers and many other diseases. Therefore, by decreasing smoking rates, mortality and morbidity due to many disease can be prevented and health spending depending on these diseases can be reduced. According to statistics of 2019, proportion of 15 years and older individuals using tobacco every day is detected as %28 in Turkey. By actions to reduce this rate, mortality due to smoking and cardiovascular disease caused smoking is being tried to reduce. It is important that ensuring continuation and working for development of these actions for improvement of public health and reduction of health spending.</p> Hayrettin Türk Merve Karaca Mert Akı Copyright (c) 2021 Turkey Health Literacy Journal 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 2 2 40 47 COVID-19 Epidemiology in our Country and the World http://saglikokuryazarligidergisi.com/index.php/soyd/article/view/46 <p>COVID 19 was seen for the first time in Wuhan, China on 31 December 2019. The epidemic spread to other countries in the Far East in a short time. The virus has started to appear in the Americas, Europe and Africa in a short period of time. The virus was then seen for the first time in Turkey on March 11. The virus has spread throughout World countries so rapidly that, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced a pandemic in March 2020. Transmission mainly occurs via close contact through respiratory droplets. Another way of transmission is indirect (secondary) form; which occurs by touching a contaminated surface and then touching person’s eyes, nose, or mouth. In this process, some groups such as elderly people, healthcare workers and people with comorbidities are more risky in terms of outbreak. In the world and our country where the number of infected people and deaths are increasing every minute, control of the virus has not been fully achieved. As of the end of December 2020, there were over 80 million cases and nearly 2 million deaths in the world due to the epidemic. COVID-19 is a serious global public health problem. Therefore, it is important to adhere to individual and social measures. In this article, the source, transmission pathways, clinical characteristics, risk groups and epidemiology of COVID-19 are examined.</p> Duran Buran Asiye Uğraş Dikmen Copyright (c) 2021 Turkey Health Literacy Journal 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 2 2 48 55 21st Century Outbreaks http://saglikokuryazarligidergisi.com/index.php/soyd/article/view/49 <p>An epidemic is defined as the occurrence of a disease in a certain region, in a certain time interval, more than expected or aggregation due to certain common characteristics. 21st century epidemic diseases were examined as new and redefined infectious diseases, noncommunicable chronic degenerative diseases and mental health diseases. In the subtitles of these diseases; diabetes, heart diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases, Alzheimer's, depression, anxiety, internet and game addiction, eating disorders, child abuse, substance addiction, AIDS, Yellow Fever, Typhoid, Shigella, Meningococcus, COVID-19 virus, zoonotic influenza viruses are considered and described as Chikungunya virus, Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus, Zika virus and MERS viruses are thought and explained. Dietary and lifestyle changes that occur with the changes of today's living conditions, increasing transportation and communication around the world, social determinants of health and inadequate health literacy are discussed as the main reasons for the increase of communicable and non-communicable diseases. In this review, it is aimed to present an up-to-date approach by mirroring the COVID-19 virus pandemic and other epidemics in the 21st century.</p> Merve Atik Şahin Dilek Yapar Copyright (c) 2021 Turkey Health Literacy Journal 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 2 2 55 64 COVID-19: Prevention Strategies http://saglikokuryazarligidergisi.com/index.php/soyd/article/view/47 <p>The current outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS‐CoV‐2 (coronavirus disease 2019; previously 2019‐nCoV), epi‐centred in Hubei Province of the People’s Republic of China, has spread to many other countries. This outbreak is a serious public health problem affecting the whole world. Prevention strategies are key to success in controlling an pandemic. Therefore, this paper examined COVID-19 prevention strategies (primary, secondary and tertiary prevention strategies )and key points related to mask wearing, hand hygiene, social distance and COVID-19 vaccines.</p> Duran Buran Mustafa N İlhan Copyright (c) 2021 Turkey Health Literacy Journal 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 2 2 65 72 How Do We Measure Oral Health Literacy? http://saglikokuryazarligidergisi.com/index.php/soyd/article/view/43 <p>This study aimed to review the measurement tools developed for the determination of oral health literacy (OHL) and to evaluate the dimensions of measurement by determining the properties of tools. Publications in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL and Medline electronic databases until January 2021 were screened to determine studies which were conducted for the development or adaptation of OHL scales or tools. The keywords: oral, dental, health, literacy, knowledge, instrument, tool, scale were used. Measurement tools were examined according to six dimensions: 1- reading/pronounciation; 2- reading comprehension or comprehension; 3- numerical skill; 4- oral health knowledge; 5- conceptual oral health knowledge; and 6- decision-making. 37 studies and 38 measurement tools were included in acoordance with the criteria. The most commonly used measurement tools have been developed based on REALM, TOFHLA and HeLMS. Most of the tools measure the dimensions of the ability of reading or pronounciation, numerical skills and reading comprehension skills, and a few measurement tools evaluate oral health knowledge and decision-making dimensions. While assessing OHL, it is recommended to develop comprehensive and critical measurement tools in addition to the ones that determine only reading and numerical skills, and to be use more widely to evaluate the relationship between OHL and oral health-related behaviors.</p> Özlem Ekmekçi Güner Nesrin Çilingiroğlu Copyright (c) 2021 Turkey Health Literacy Journal 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 2 2 73 84